Determination of Optimum Operating Condition on the Extraction of Oil from the Seed of Jarak Tiang (Ricinus communis Linn) Using Organic Solvent
The increasing of demand for fuel oil is a problem that unavoidable and will continue to occur due to the increasing number of human population. Oil reserves would not be possible to grow despite of the increasing of continues exploration, which will result the opposite. It is necessary to look for other alternatives to replace these fuels. One is through the use of bio-diesel which can be obtained from plants that are environmentally friendly and renewable. The Jarak Tiang Plant (ricinus communis Linn) is one type of plant that can be used as raw material for bio-diesel. Seeds from these plants have a high oil content, i.e 40-55%. Part of the Jarak plant that can be used to make bio-diesel is the seed. The first step of the synthesis of bio-diesel from the seed of Jarak plant is oil extraction using organic solvents. Results obtained from this study indicate that the solvent that gave the largest yield is a mixture of methanol-chloroform for 60 minutes. The lowest acid number and viscosity obtained from methanol-chloroform solvent mixture for 120 minutes. The lowest iodine number obtained from the solvent n-hexane for 120 minutes. While the flash point for every variation of the same value i.e. 190 deg. Celsius.